Hi this is Dr. Young Seattle Plastic Surgeon. What were doing is treating acne scarring There are a lot of different ways to treat ice pick scars That’s what we are concentrating on today I’m going to talk about all the different options I wanted to show you the different types of acne scarring here. So this is typically what people call ice pick scarring Once they start getting bigger, you start calling them box car scars. Essentially how that happens your hair follicles grow really deep in your skin. And when you get infected they cause a lot of scarring underneath your skin.
That essentially leads to a degradation of the collagen through the inflammation and infection that it causes and tissue underneath it is essentially eaten away by the infection and inflammation and hence what you end up having is adhesions from the skin to the deeper structures. That’s why you get you get these little ice pick scars usually its around previous hair follicles that have gotten inflammed before. there are different ways to try to improve that In general acne scarring is hard to improve but One thing that were doing today is that we have marked here.
What we have marked here for the bigger ones were going to be doing some excisions They can be improved by some different techniques This is what we elected to do for him. This what we think is the best for these particular scars in order to allow the adhesions to come away from the deeper structures A lot of people do subcision where they take an instrument to go underneath to try to cause scarring to make these little depressions and ice pick scars to rise up and away from the deeper structures by creating a layer of scar tissue underneath.
Another way of going about doing that is actually grafting fat all through a layer underneath the skin in order to create a layer under the skin that causes the skin to come away from the underlying deeper structures that is leading to these ice pick scars. in addition that fat grafting can bring more vascularity to the whole area to allow the skin to heal in that regard through stem cells, the vascularity and the volumizing that you get with fat grafting. other ways to improve these ice pick scars are to cut around it and elevate the tissue.
Or take punch grafts from behind the ear in the same size then take out the scar tissue and then graft the tissue in the scar Alot of times you will see a circular lesion there that is not as a favorable of an outcome. where you could just excise it and get a better outcome What were doing again here is the excision of these scars and what we are doing now is using a very concentrated form of trichloroacetic acid its eighty percent and this is sort of a technique that you know we’re doing it differently.
Right here I’m using a broken off q tip and I’m going right into the ice pick scars and adding some liquid in there. As you can see its turning white as its undergoing a little chemical peel. This is one way to do this. as you can tell its turning white and we’ve done it in these other areas. too. So we’re going to keep doing this for these other little depressions to try to get them to raise up. Anyways I wanted to show this technique of using tricholoracetic acid to cause some of these ice pick scars.
How to Remove Skin Tags at Home DermTV Epi 511
The internet is full of at home products that remove skin tags. Many work but cause burning and red skin at best, and even worse side effects if you’re not careful. I’ll tell you about them, and also, the best way to remove skin tags at home, which is amazingly simple. Hello, I’m Dr. Neal Schultz pause And welcome to DermTV. Most at home products to remove skin tags work by either chemically burning, known as cauterizing, or freezing skin tags, which then take a few days to fall off. Burning is usually done with acids or other caustic chemicals,.
While freezing is done with chemical sprays that literally cause the skin tags to freeze to death. During the few days it takes for the tags to fall off, there is inflammation, discomfort and burning of the surrounding skin. As if that didn’t sound bad enough, all of these products have four other issues to be aware of. First, you need to make sure what you’re treating is actually a skin tag. If it’s not, you may delay proper treatment, or even make it worse. For example, you don’t want to unsuccessfully treat a skin cancer as a skin tag.
And therefore have it grow deeper or even spread because you delayed the diagnosis and treatment. Second, proper treatment requires precise application of the product to the skin tag and not to the surrounding skin since all skin will be damaged by the product. Allowing even a tiny amount of the chemical to spill onto normal skin causes a burning sensation for a few days until the skin heals. One product advertised online includes a how to tutorial and shows such sloppy application of the product to more of the surrounding skin than to the alleged skin tag.
Which in the tutorial is actually a mole, not a skin tag. That caused a 2 inch diameter area of normal surrounding skin to become bright red and painful from inflammation. Third, since they all work by injuring the skin of the skin tag, it takes many days for the irrevocably injured skin tag to die, shrivel up and fall off. Then complete healing of the base where it was attached to the normal skin takes a few weeks. And last, most products are advertised as gentle but effective. Unfortunately, no chemical or physical cauterant is gentle.
However, precise application to only the skin tag without spilling over to the surrounding normal skin results in less discomfort. Even a tea tree oil based product can create problems since tea tree oil, if used topically in high concentrations may cause skin irritation. In my opinion, the best way to remove skin tags at home is to do the same thing I do in the office. I take an ice cube and chill the skin tag for 15 seconds. Then, with a sterile, very pointed small scissor. I painlessly snip the tag off at the bottom of its stalk where it rises out from the skin.
Removing Facial Moles with Hair DermTV Epi 488
Removing hair from raised moles on the face is usually easy and safe. But if the mole is removed, will that prevent the hair from growing back It depends on how the mole’s removed. Hello, I’m Dr. Neal Schultz pause And welcome to DermTV. I’ve explained why removing hair from facial moles is usually safe. But raised moles on the face are usually not desirable, and when they also have hair, if I tell you that some people call them grandmother moles, that should be enough to explain why people often have them removed.
So you would think that removing the mole should insure that the hair won’t grow back. Well, not exactly. You see, it depends on how it’s removed. For that to make sense, we have to go back to, What is a mole with hair Moles with hairs, regardless of where they are on your body, a re usually intradermal moles. Intra means within and dermal means the second layer of skin..So intradermal moles are entirely in the dermis, the second layer of skin. The fact that it sticks up above the surface of your skin and is a bump.
.just means that there’s lots of mole tissue in the dermis pushing up the unaffected top layer, the epidermis, which is present even on top of the mole. But check out where the hair roots are! There are two ways to remove the mole. The technique that gives the best cosmetic result is by simply using a scalpel blade to shave off the raised part of the mole. Yes, of course I use local anesthesia so it’s painless. This technique usually gives the best cosmetic result with no scar. But don’t forget where the hair follicles are located.
If your hairs are growing from follicles here above the cleavage level, then those hairs are gone and won’t come back. But if they’re down here..then after the skin heals, those hairs will continue to grow. OK, so why not cut out the entire mole, even the part under the skin so all the hair roots are removed Because to do that I need to cut out all the skin down to here, the bottom of the hair roots, and sew up the two sides of the wound. Even with the best skill and technique,.
ATP Respiration Crash Course Biology 7
Oh, hello there. I’m at the gym. I don’t know why you’re here, but I’m going to do some pushups, so you can join me on the floor if you want. Now, I’m not doing this to show off or anything. I’m actually doing this for science. pained grunt You see what happened there My arms moved, my shoulders moved, my back and stomach muscles moved, my heart pumped blood to all those different places. Pretty neat, huh Well, it turns out that how we make and use energy is a lot like sports or other kinds.
Of exercise It can be hard work and a little bit complicated but if you do it right, it can come with some tremendous payoffs. But unlike hitting a ball with a stick, it’s so marvelously complicated and awesome that we’re still unraveling the mysteries of how it all works. And it all starts with a marvelous molecule that is one of you best friends ATP. Today I’m talking about energy and the process our cells, and other animal cells, go through to provide themselves with power. Cellular respiration is how we derive energy from the food we eatspecifically from glucose,.
Since most of what we eat ends up as glucose. Here’s the chemical formula for one molecule of glucose C6H12O6. In order to turn this glucose into energy, we’re going to need to add some oxygen. Six molecules of it, to be exact. Through cellular respiration, we’re going to turn that glucose and oxygen into 6 molecules of CO2, 6 molecules of water and some energy that we can use for doing all our push ups. So that’s all well and good, but here’s the thing We can’t just use that energy.
To run a marathon or something. First our bodies have to turn that energy into a really specific form of stored energy called ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. You’ve heard me talk about this before. People often refer to ATP as the currency of biological energy. Think of it as an American dollarit’s what you need to do business in the U.S. You can’t just walk into Best Buy with a handful of Chinese yen or Indian rupees and expect to be able to buy anything with them, even though they are technically money. Same goes.
With energy In order to be able to use it, our cells need energy to be transferred into adenosine triphosphate to be able to grow, move, create electrical impulses in our nerves and brains. Everything. A while back, for instance, we talked about how cells use ATP to transport some kinds of materials in and out of its membranes to jog your memory about that you can watch it right here. Now before we see how ATP is put together, let’s look at how cells cash in on the energy that’s stashed in there.
Well, adenosine triphosphate is made up of an nitrogenous base called adenine with a sugar called ribose and three phosphate groups attached to it Now one thing you need to know about these 3 phosphate groups is that they are super uncomfortable sitting together in a row like that like 3 kids on the bus who hate each other all sharing the same seat. So, because the phosphate groups are such terrible company for each other, ATP is able to do this this nifty trick where it shoots one of the phosphates groups off the end of.
The seat, creating ADP, or adenosine diphosphate because now there are just two kids sitting on the bus seat. In this reaction, when the third jerk kid is kicked off the seat, energy is released. And since there are a lot of water molecules just floating around nearby, an OH pairing that’s called a hydroxide from some H2O comes over and takes the place of that third phosphate group. And everybody is much happier. By the way When you use water to break down a compound like this, it’s called hydrolysis.
hydro for water and lysis, from the Greek word for separate. So now that you know how ATP is spent, let’s see how it’s minted nice and new by cellular respiration. Like I said, it all starts with oxygen and glucose. In fact, textbooks make a point of saying that through cellular respiration, one molecule of glucose can yield a bit of heat and 38 molecules of ATP. Now, it’s worth noting that this number is kind of a best case scenario. Usually it’s more like 2930 ATPs, but whatever people are still studying.
This stuff, so let’s stick with that 38 number. Now cellular respiration isn’t something that just happens all at once glucose is transformed into ATPs over 3 separate stages glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain. Traditionally these stages are described as coming one after the other, but really everything in a cell is kinda happening all at the same time. But let’s start with the first step glycolysis, or the breaking down of the glucose. Glucose, of course, is a sugaryou know this because it’s got an ose at the end.
Of it. And glycolysis is just the breaking up of glucose’s 6 carbon ring into two 3carbon molecules called pyruvic acids or pyruvate molecules. Now in order to explain how exactly glycolysis works, I’d need about an hour of your time, and a giant cast of finger puppets each playing a different enzyme, and though it would pain me to do it, I’d have to use words like phosphoglucoisomerase. But one simple way of explaining it is this If you wanna make money, you gotta spend money. Glycolysis needs the investment of 2 ATPs in order to work, and in the end it generates.
4 ATPs, for a net profit, if you will, of 2 ATPs. In addition to those 4 ATPs, glycolysis also results in 2 pyruvates and 2 superenergyrich morsels called NADH, which are sort of the lovechildren of a B vitamin called NAD pairing with energized electrons and a hydrogen to create storehouses of energy that will later be tapped to make ATP. To help us keep track of all of the awesome stuff we’re making here, let’s keep score So far we’ve created 2 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH, which will be used.
To power more ATP production later. Now, a word about oxygen. Like I mentioned, oxygen is necessary for the overall process of cellular respiration. But not every stage of it. Glycolysis, for example, can take place without oxygen, which makes it an anaerobic process. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvates formed through glycolysis get rerouted into a process called fermentation. If there’s no oxygen in the cell, it needs more of that NAD to keep the glycolysis process going. So fermentation frees up some NAD, which happens to create some interesting by products.
For instance, in some organisms, like yeasts, the product of fermentation is ethyl alcohol, which is the same thing as all of this lovely stuff. But luckily for our daytoday productivity, our muscles don’t make alcohol when they don’t get enough oxygen. If that were the case, working out would make us drunk, which actually would be pretty awesome, but instead of ethyl alcohol, they make lactic acid. Which is what makes you feel sore after that workout that kicked your butt. So, your muscles used up all the oxygen they had, and they had to kick into anaerobic respiration.
In order to get the energy that they needed, and so you have all this lactic acid building up in your muscle tissue. Back to the score. Now we’ve made 2 molecules of ATP through glycolysis, but your cells really need the oxygen in order to make the other 30some molecules they need. That’s because the next two stages of cellular respiration the Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain, are both aerobic processes, which means they require oxygen. And so we find ourselves at the next step in cellular respiration after glycolosis.
The Krebs Cycle. So, while glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, or the fluid medium within the cell that all the organelles hang out in, the Krebs Cycle happens across the inner membrane of the mitochondria, which are generally considered the power centers of the cell. The Krebs Cycle takes the products of glycolysis those carbonrich pyruvates and reworks them to create another 2 ATPs per glucose molecule, plus some energy in a couple of other forms, which I’ll talk about in a minute. Here’s how First, one of the pyruvates is oxidized, which basically means it’s combined with oxygen.
One of the carbons off the threecarbon chain bonds with an oxygen molecule and leaves the cell as CO2. What’s left is a twocarbon compound called acetyl coenzyme A, or acetyl coA. Then, another NAD comes along, picks up a hydrogen and becomes NADH. So our two pyruvates create another 2 molecules of NADH to be used later. As in glycolysis, and really all life, enzymes are essential here they’re proteins that bring together the stuff that needs to react with each other, and they bring it together in just the right way. These enzymes bring together a phosphate with ADP, to create another.
ATP molecule for each pyruvate. Enzymes also help join the acetyl coA and a 4carbon molecule called oxaloacetic acid. I think that’s how you pronounce it. Together they form a 6carbon molecule called citric acid, and I’m certain that’s how you pronounce that one because that’s the stuff that’s in orange juice. Fun fact The Krebs Cycle is also known as the Citric Acid Cycle because of this very byproduct. But it’s usually referred to by the name of the man who figured it all out Hans Krebs, an ear nose and throat surgeon who fled Nazi Germany to teach biochemistry.
At Cambridge, where he discovered this incredibly complex cycle in 1937. For being such a total freaking genius, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1953. Anyway, the citric acid is then oxidized over a bunch of intricate steps, cutting carbons off left and right, to eventually get back to oxaloacetic acid, which is what makes the Krebs Cycle a cycle. And as the carbons get cleaved off the citric acid, there are leftovers in the form of CO2 or carbon dioxide , which are exhaled by the cell, and eventually by.
You. You and I, as we continue our existence as people, are exhaling the products of the Krebs Cycle right now. Good work. This tutorial, by the way, I’m using a lot of ATPs making it. Now, each time a carbon comes off the citric acid, some energy is made, but it’s not ATP. It’s stored in a whole different kind of molecular package. This is where we go back to NAD and its sort of colleague FAD. NAD and FAD are both chummy little enzymes that are related to B vitamins, derivatives.
Of Niacin and Riboflavin, which you might have seen in the vitamin aisle. These B vitamins are good at holding on to high energy electrons and keeping that energy until it can get released later in the electron transport chain. In fact, they’re so good at it that they show up in a lot of those high energyvitamin powders the kids are taking these days. NADs and FADs are like batteries, big awkward batteries that pick up hydrogen and energized electrons from each pyruvate, which in effect charges them up. The addition of hydrogen.
Turns them into NADH and FADH2, respectively. Each pyruvate yeilds 3 NADHs and 1 FADH2 per cycle, and since each glucose has been broken down into two pyruvates, that means each glucose molecule can produce 6 NADHs and 2 FADH2s. The main purpose of the Krebs Cycle is to make these powerhouses for the next and final step, the Electron Transport Chain. And now’s the time when you’re saying, Sweet pyruvate sandwiches, Hank, aren’t we supposed to be making ATP Let’s make it happen, Capt’n! What’s the holdup Well friends, your patience has paid off, because when it comes to ATPs, the electron.
Transport chain is the real moneymaker. In a very efficient cell, it can net a whopping 34 ATPs. So, remember all those NADHs and FADH2s we made in the Krebs Cycle Well, their electrons are going to provide the energy that will work as a pump along a chain of channel proteins across the inner membrane of the mitochondria where the Krebs Cycle occurred. These proteins will swap these electrons to send hydrogen protons from inside the very center of the mitochondria, across its inner membrane to the outer compartment of the mitochondria.
But once they’re out, the protons want to get back to the other side of the inner membrane, because there’s a lot of other protons out there, and as we’ve learned, nature always tends to seek a nice, peaceful balance on either side of a membrane. So all of these anxious protons are allowed back in through a special protein called ATP synthase. And the energy of this proton flow drives this crazy spinning mechanism that squeezes some ADP and some phosphates together to form ATP. So, the electrons from the 10 NADHs that came.
Out of the Krebs Cycle have just enough energy to produce roughly 3 ATPs each. And we can’t forget our friends the FADH2s. We have two of them and they make 2 ATPs each. And voila! That is how animal cells the world over make ATP through cellular respiration. Now just to check, let’s reset our ATP counter and do the math for a single glucose molecule once again We made 2 ATPs for each pyruvate during glycolysis. We made 2 in the Krebs Cycle. And then during the electron transport chain we made about 34 in the electron transport chain.
How to Apply Glycolic Exfoliants DermTV Epi 490
If you’re a fan of DermTV, then you already know the importance of regular glycolic exfoliation for more beautiful, healthier and younger looking skin. As a matter of fact, it’s the single most important treatment you can do. But how do you actually apply your glycolic Hello, I’m Dr. Neal Schultz pause And welcome to DermTV. I’m happy to tell you that applying glycolic products is no different than applying any other simple skincare product. First, as with any active ingredient, to get its full benefit you must prep your skin with an oil and water,.
Skin type appropriate cleanser and toner to remove all of the potential impediments to absorption. Your cleanser and toner will synergize to remove excess oils, dirt, debris and loose dead cells. And after finishing wiping with your toner, give it half a minute to completely evaporate, or take a soft cotton ball and gently remove any excess. You’re now ready to apply your glycolic! If you’re using a glycolic serum or gel, apply just a few drops with your finger to each side of your face and spread them all over, avoiding the eye area.
If using glycolic pads, gently wipe your entire face, always avoiding the eye area. If you have a glycolic cream, put a pea sized amount in your palm and with a finger from your other hand dab tiny bits all over your face, again avoiding your eye area nd then spread it around. I recommend using glycolic at bedtime. And it should be the first product applied after you cleanse and tone With one exception if you’re using a blemish spot treatment and a glycolic in a cream vehicle, apply the spot treatment first.
Your glycolic treatment shouldn’t be irritating or cause your skin to turn red. The right glycolics are gentle yet effective. They may tingle for 10 seconds, which is normal, but the tingling shouldn’t increase and there shouldn’t be any burning. If there is, wash your face with water, which immediately neutralizes the glycolic. Finally, as with most skincare, remember that less is more. Once applied, your glycolic should dry and set in less than thirty seconds. If not, you’ve used too much, tissue off the excess and next time use less.
Wart Warts Removed in 15 Minutes
Welcome to Warts Warts can be removed Warts can be removed with one fifteen minute treatment at home The wart removal kit contains all you need to remove twenty to thirty Warts and skin healing cream containing pearl oil here we have a gentleman with a very large wart on his forehead he’s very aware of it and has tried many times to remove it without success until now after cleaning the area with a sterile pad here we can see the emery board being used to roughen the surface of the skin.
To allow the active ingredients to penetrate into the body of the wart to destroy it the applicator is used to coat the wart with the black solution a mild stinging sensation is normal at this stage any excess cream should be wiped away the cream is left in place for fifteen minutes and will turn white in some cases a second application may be needed if the wart is old and thick we can see as the area is cleaned that the whole wart has changed color The healing cream contain Pearl oil is then applied to be treated area and.
Keratosis Treatment How To Remove Keratosis Home
Do you suffer from keratosis Keratoses can be easily removed in only days while in the comfort of your own home The keratosis removal kit contains all you require to remove up to ten large keratoses if your keratosis is old and thick use the emery board provided to roughen the surface to allow the solution to penetrate into the body of the keratosis to destroy it the protection gel should be applied to the surrounding skin then apply the removal solution to the keratosis for fifteen to twenty minutes the solution begins to react and bubble.
As it attacks the surface of the keratosis leaving a white residue as it dries a sure sign that the treatment has been successful this should be repeated twice daily for up to fourteen days for a large keratosis after treatment the area will become dry the keratosis will darken and begin to flake away the fresh new skin will gradually blend in with the surrounding skin leaving no scar Keratosis What keratosis! All ingredients a one hundred percent natural Well, what are you waiting for Purchase your keratosis removal kit today.
Best Way to Get Rid of Acne Pock Marks
What is the best way to get rid of acne pock marks Ideally with prevention, such as controlling acne so bad it doesn’t scar and avoiding the secondary infections that create the pustules in the first place. It is too late for that. What can I do Have you considered concealer I’d consider a face mask at this point. You could try foundation makeup to cover it up. That could make the acne worse, though in the short term it would cover it up. How can I get rid of the pock marks.
The pock marks are scars. Nothing will get rid of them permanently. I could try scar removal cream. Scar removal creams do not remove scars, simply plump them up or soften them to make them less noticeable. What will that do with the holes on my face It won’t make them deeper, but the overall appearance may or may not be better. I wonder if moisturizer will help. Moisturizer sometimes helps if the skin is dry and starting to show lines. It may or may not help with acne pock marks, but may plump things up enough to make small acne.
Scars less noticeable. What is the standard way to remove scars Lasers and cauterization are popular for removing the tissue, though it does leave a burned area that is a minor scar in its own right. A scorched earth policy seems extreme, especially when the world would see the results. I’d be afraid to use that on my face. You could talk to the doctor about getting vitamin A creams. These help heal existing blemishes before they turn into scars and prevent future ones. I heard Retinol was dangerous. Retinol is a different therapy. But it is only dangerous if you are pregnant.